City of Salzburg (Salzburg)

The city of Salzburg is included to the state Salzburg and to the district Salzburg

Presentation of the destination

Salzburg or "the salt castle"

Salzburg is the fourth largest city in Austria, the capital of the state of Salzburg, on the border of Germany. The old town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has nearly 150,000 inhabitants on an area of ​​65.6 square kilometers and is at an altitude of 424 meters. She owns 24 neighborhoods. The center of the city is remarkable for its streets, its old houses and its stalls, without cars: only cabs are allowed there. The name Salzburg literally means "salt castle", salt thanks to which life holds its fortune. His coat of arms is red and represents a castle with three towers. It is twinned with Reims in France. Salzburg is known for its particularly well-preserved Baroque architecture, to be the birthplace of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and for its classical music festival which is one of the most prestigious in the world.

Points of interests / things to see

The history of Salzburg

The site of present-day Salzburg was occupied by the Neolithic, a thousand years BC. The Illyrians - protohistoric people living in Illyria (the current Balkans) - settled there. Around 600 BC, the Celts occupied it until 45 AD, when the city was conquered by the Romans who call it Juvavum. A cloister is housed there during the 5th century. In 699, the Bavarian Count presents the city to the Bishop Ruper von Worms. Salzburg becomes independent of Bavaria in the late 14th century. It became the seat of the bishopric in 739 and was ruled by prince-archbishops as a city-state until 1803. Ferdinand II of Tuscany then took power and Salzburg was annexed to Austria in 1805, then attached to the Bavarian in 1810, before being reintegrated with Austria in 1816. Around 1860, the city grew larger of its fortification and annexed in 1935 the neighboring communes. Its territory is tripled and the population is growing by more than 20,000 inhabitants. After the first World War and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Salzburg became part of German Austria. Austria was annexed by the Third Reich in 1938 and after the war became the capital of the state of Salzburg.

Geography and climate of the city

Salzburg lies on the banks of the Salzach River, on the northern edge of the Alps, about 150 kilometers east of Munich, about 281 kilometers north-west of Ljuljana in Slovenia and About 300 kilometers west of Vienna. The south of the city is in the mountains and the north of Salzburg is situated on plains. The Alpine summit Untersberg of 1972 meters above sea level is less than 16 kilometers from the city center. The old town is surrounded by small green mounts. The climate of Salzburg is continental temperate. Rainfall is important here, especially during the summer months. Salzburg is exposed to foehn wind, strong, hot and dry.

The mines of the "salt castle"

The salt industry was very important in Salzburg in the nineteenth century and before. Salt was produced in the buildings of Bad Reichenhall including a neo-Romanesque chapel. The visit is made by descending into the network of mines and caves, to discover everything you need to know about the salt deposits, the harvest of a source and manufacture of "white gold", from origins to the present day. On the last floor is installed an exhibition on the historical roots of the city through the salt industry. The guided tour lasts one hour and can be done in English, French or Italian.

Romanesque and Gothic architecture

On the hill of the Capuchins is the convent of the same name, in which were installed minor children Capuchin in 1596 under the prince-archbishop Wolf Dietrich of Raiteneau. The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the monasteries were present in large numbers in the medieval city. At the end of the Gothic era were built Margaret Chapel in the cemetery of St. Peter's Abbey as well as St. George's Chapel and the first walls of HohenSalzburg Castle. The castle HohenSalzburg is one of the largest medieval castles in Europe. Its construction began in 1077 and, after many expansions, it was renovated in the late nineteenth century to become a major tourist attraction. During the twentieth century, it was used as a prison for Italian prisoners of war and Nazi activists. St. Peter's Abbey is a Benedictine monastery, probably the oldest in the German-speaking area of ​​Salzburg. It was built on the site of a church of late antiquity in 696. The current Romanesque building was consecrated in 1147. The bell tower was decorated with a bulb in 1756 and the interior , already remodeled several times, was renovated in the Rococo style between 1760 and 1782. Mozart played the first of his Great Mass in C minor on October 26, 1783.

In Saint Peter's Abbey

St. Peter's Abbey is home to the oldest library in Austria with 800 manuscripts, the most valuable of which is the Verbrüderungsbuch: the Register of the Middle Ages of the Monastery, which was used to record the names of benefactors and people in close contact with the monastery, so that the monks remember it in their prayers. The library has gradually acquired more than 100,000 books, particularly on Benedictine monasticism, the history of mediaeval churches, the history of art, and the history of art. history of Salzburg. The abbey also has a collection of paintings, church treasures, minerals, musical instruments, furniture and a cabinet of curiosities.

Renaissance and Baroque architecture

At the end of the XVI century, the city was transformed: the medieval city became a city of the Renaissance with its architectural codes. A baroque cathedral was built, the first in Salzburg, which later served as an example for many churches in southern Germany and Austria. The other architectural projects of the time were the Hellbrunn Palace, the buildings of the university, the fortifications, the churches Erhard and Kajetan in the south of the city, the Sigmundstor and the statue of the Virgin Mary in the park of the cathedral. The Hellbrunn Palace is located near the Morzg district in southern Salzburg. Baroque style, it was only used as residence of summer, day, the Archà © vèque, that is why there is no room. It is famous for its water games that attract a lot of tourists in summer. This jets of water were designed with humor by Markus Sittikus, with surprise jets. In 1750 he also designed a water-activated theater that plays music. There is only one point in the garden that is never wet: the place where the archbishop who is now occupied by the tour guide is standing. The palace park is surrounded by a zoo, a stone theater and the small palace Monatschlossl.

-war modernism and contemporary architecture

The best examples of modern architecture in Salzburg are the Zahnwurzen house at number 22 Linzergasse street in the old town, the public baths "Lepi" of 1964, in the street Leopoldskron and the Groes Festspilhaus designed by the architect Clemens Holzmeister in 1956 for the Salzburg Festival. Inaugurated in 1960, it has one of the largest scenes in the world (100 meters wide) and has 2179 seats. The entrance is through five bronze doors and the front is adorned with a Latin quote: "The sacred house of the muse is open to those who are touched by the music / the divine power supports the inspired ones. " The most contemporary buildings in Salzburg are the Mozarteum (University of Music and Dramatic Arts) in the Baroque Mirabell Garden designed by Robert Rechenauer, the House of Congresses designed by the Freemasons agency in 2001, as well as the "Makartsteg" bridge (HALLE1 agency), the Christine and Horst Lechner architects' workshop and the 2011 Unipark Nonntal park by the Storch Ehlers partners agency. The University of Salzburg University, housed by Willhelm Holzbauer, is located at the Red Bull "Blobic" hangar at the airport (Volkmar Burgstaller) and the Europark shopping center (Massimiliano Fuksas).

To see in the old town

The center of Salzburg has several tourist attractions in addition to its historical and church buildings, such as the Residenzegalerie museum and its Czermin collection (diplomat and Austro-Hungarian politician) composed of numerous paintings from the 17th century. Key, mainly Dutch, but also Italian, Spanish and French, including the Old Woman praying Rembrandt. Getreidegasse street is a shopping street in one of the oldest areas of Salzburg. Every day Maria meets there, the "puppet woman", who sells her puppets there since 1987. Mozart lived in this street at n ° 9, from 1747 to 1773. The apartment of the Mozart family is deceased now a museum that exhibits several instruments that belonged to the composer: his child's violin, his concert violin, his fortepiano and his clavichord. In the apartment of the former neighbor is installed a reconstruction of a bourgeois apartment of Salzburg, at the time of Mozart, with furniture and objects of epoch as well as three exhibitions on the themes : Friendship between Mozart and families from Salzburg "," Sacred music and worship of the saints "," Mozart and the University of Salzburg "and on the second floor" Mozart with tea " This last theme is illustrated by the dioramas that tell the story of the representations of Mozart's operas.

The Salzburg Festival

Officially inaugurated on 22 August 1920 by the performance of Hofmannsthal's Jedermann by Maw Reinhardt, the Salzburg Festival has kept this tradition and the play is played, each time, by new musical bands. The Festival was undermined by the annexation of Austria by the Nazis: leaders resigned to protest and Jewish artists had to migrate, but it reopened as soon as the end of World War II ended. 1945. He quickly resumed his place as the first summer festival of opera, theater and classical concerts. In 2006, the festival paid homage to Mozart on the occasion of his 250th birthday by playing his 22 operas.

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Salzburg time
UTC +1:00 (Europe/Vienna)
Summer time UTC -0:00
Winter time UTC +1:00


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Surrounding towns

  • Hallein ~15 km
  • Bad Reichenhall ~16 km
  • Seekirchen am Wallersee ~11 km
  • Teisendorf ~18 km
  • Eugendorf ~9 km
  • Bayerisch Gmain ~15 km
  • Saaldorf-Surheim ~10 km
  • Henndorf am Wallersee ~14 km
  • Thalgau ~15 km
  • Adnet ~14 km

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To Salzburg

The city is served by train on the east-west line passing through Vienna, Munich, Innsbruck and Zurich. Departures are frequent and sometimes at high speed. Salzburg is also the starting point for many trains crossing the Alps to Italy. Salzburg Airport connects the European cities of Frankfurt (3 hours 45 flight), Vienna (50 minutes, London (1 hour 50 minutes), Rotterdam (7 hours), Amsterdam (3 hours 45 minutes), Brussels (3 hours), Dusseldorf (1 hour 25 minutes), Zurich (1 hour 15 minutes), Hamburg (1 hour 15 minutes) and Dublin (4 hours 25 minutes). There is a bus and trolleybus network of more than 20 lines in the city itself, and the waiting time between buses is around 10 minutes. OBB metro network has 4 lines (S1, S2, S3 and S11) Trains leave the main station every 30 minutes Suburban line S1 joins the Silent Night Chapel in Oberndorf in approximately 25 minutes By car, Salzburg is 1.5 hours from Munich via highway 8, 2.5 hours from Vienna via the A1 motorway and 3.5 hours from Innsbruck via the A12 motorway.

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