Brazil is a country of South America
with a surface area of 8,514,876 km² (density of 22.78 inhab./km²). The population of Brazil is 193,946,886 inhabitants in the last census.The capital of Brazil is the city of Brasília which has 2,562,963 inhabitants. The President of the Federal Republic is Dilma Rousseff.
"Order and progress"
Brazil or Federative Republic of Brazil is a country of the sub-continent of South America between the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. It shares borders with Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana. Its eastern facade is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on nearly 7,500 km.
List of current heads of state and government
Brazil at a glance
Federal Presidential Republic
Administrative divisions: 26 states and one federal district
Population: more than 204 million inhabitants
Main language: Brazilian Portuguese
Main religion: Christianity
Current Chairman: Michel Temer
Currency: Real (1 real = 100 centavos)
Conversion into euro: 100 reals = 27 euros
Tourism: tourists must be vigilant because they can be victims of robberies sometimes with violence or even murders. Favelas, border areas and northwestern regions are discouraged. It is important to protect yourself against mosquito bites.
A country of excess
With 8,514,876 km², Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and the largest in Latin America. It represents more than 43% of the total area of South America. The country also has some offshore islands and the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, which is remarkable for its surroundings and has earned UNESCO's status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
This vast territory naturally presents a wide variety of landscapes, from savanna to mangroves (rainforests) and the tropical forests. Its relief is however relatively flat and only the northern part of the country and a zone bordering the coastal strip have high mountains. The highest peak of the country, the Pico da Neblina (Pic des Mumes) is located at the Venezuelan border and culminates at 2,994 meters above sea level. This peak emerges from the Serra Imeri mountain range and forms a part of the Pico da Neblina National Park.
The chain delimiting the littoral presents a great diversity of relief and altitude. Its peak, the Pic de la Bandeira is at 2,890 meters above sea level.
The rest of the country is divided between the vast plains stretching along the coast, in the Amazon basin and in the Pantanal, and two immense plateaus, the Guyana plateau and the Brazilian plateau.
The Amazon basin is composed of a plain bordered by plateaus and traversed by the Amazon, the second longest river in the world after the Nile, and its tributaries. The Amazon, 6,437 km long, originates in the Peruvian Andes and flows into the Atlantic Ocean near the Equator. This river is remarkable for its high flow, its depth reaching 80 meters, its innumerable islands and its width of up to 10 km (and 40 km during the floods), which allows the vessels to climb it over more than 4,500 km inland (to Iquitos for ferries and at least to Achual for smaller boats). The Amazon crosses the rainforest and brings the necessary moisture to its luxuriant vegetation, mainly during floods, when the banks are flooded. This region is an extraordinary biotope and home to an extraordinary flora and fauna. There are tens of thousands of different plants, several million species of insects and more than 2,000 birds or mammals. The Amazon is home to anacondas, piranhas and a colony of Botos, a variety of freshwater dolphins that can exceed 2.5 meters. It is estimated that 25% of the world's animal species are represented in the Amazon basin.
The Amazon is also characterized by the diversity of colors of its sometimes black waters when they carry vegetables, sometimes white ocher when the clay remains suspended and sometimes transparent. These differences are particularly evident when the waters meet at the confluences of the different rios.
As it approaches the sea, the Amazon floods the plains from which only the tops of the trees and some islands emerge. Its mouth embedded in that of the Para is estimated to be more or less 300 kilometers and isolates the coastal island of Marajo from the continent. Marajo is covered to the east with impenetrable forests and to the west of sandy beaches and mangroves inhabited by red ibis, symbol of the island.
The Pantanal plain forms an immense area of grassland and flooded savannahs in west-central Brazil. The world's largest wetland of more or less 200,000 km², it also covers part of Paraguay and Bolivia. It is inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List.
This territory is completely submerged for four months a year, during the flood period of the different rivers that run through it. It shelters various biotopes, from grassy plains to gallery forests whose canopies (upper part) form a dome above the rivers. The plain is of major ecological importance especially since a large part is almost inaccessible and therefore perfectly preserved. There are over 3,500 species of plants, some of them endangered, as well as hundreds of different fish, reptiles and birds, including a large variety of parrots such as the hyacinth macaw, the world's largest parrot up to 1 meter high that is in danger of extinction. Among the mammals that inhabit the Pantanal are the presence of jaguars, Pantanal deer, giant otters, howler monkeys, sloths, pumas, armadillos and capybaras, the largest rodents.
The coastal strip is relatively narrow. There are splendid beaches of fine sand bordering the coastal cities and seaside resorts or nestled against immense dunes. In some parts of the coast, the plateaux advance into the ocean and form lagoons and berries.
The Guianas plateau covers part of northern Brazil. It is in the form of a mountain range with an average altitude of 2,000 meters which also extends to Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname. It is characterized by "tepuys", usually flat tops in the shape of tables and steep slopes resulting from the distortion of the American continent which broke up the plateau and raised huge blocks. These summits, frequently swept by winds and rain, however, shelter an endemic vegetation typical of poor soils that are quite sparse, offering a striking contrast with the rainforest virgin forest that extends to their feet and which joins the Amazon rainforest.
The Brazilian plateau occupies the center of Brazil and extends to the south and east. This immense plateau which covers almost half of the country consists of several sectors:
The central plateau characterized by heavily eroded low elevation peaks called "chapades". The flattened summits on the rectilinear slopes form narrow valleys. Chapada Diamantina protected by an eponymous national park is the largest chapade in Brazil
there is also a relatively low relief in the form of chapadas in the north-east of the country
Rios Paraná and Uruguay and their tributaries form cuestas in the south of the country. The cuestas are characterized by valleys with gentle slopes
the plateaus located in the east and in the south of the country which are separated from the coast by a mountain range
a region of hills forming the shield of the Rio Grande do Sul located in the extreme south of the country
Due to its geographical location, Brazil has a mainly tropical savanna type climate with a dry season and a wet season, but there are large differences between the north and the south of the country. The Amazon basin has a warm and humid equatorial climate with a monsoon period. The south of the country enjoys a subtropical temperate climate with an average summer temperature of 24 ° and a winter of 15 °. In all other regions of the country, the average annual temperature is around 25 ° with peaks reaching 40 °.
A controversial origin
Various archaeological excavations have uncovered many vestiges, but today, the origin of the settlement of the Americas and therefore of Brazil remains controversial.
If the theory of the man arriving on the continent via the Bering Strait from Siberia around 15,000 BCE remains the most frequently assumed hypothesis, various more recent researches make it wobbly. The discovery of remains dating back 50,000 years on the Petra Furada site in Piaui, northeastern Brazil, would show that the settlement began well before the last glaciation that would have allowed the hominids to cross the strait by taking advantage of the fall of water. The traces of human occupation (charcoal from homes) taken from a rock shelter would even indicate the presence of men in the area 60,000 years ago. These first men arrived in the American continent would be of the African or Australian type.
It was also in Petra Furada that one of the oldest boat shows in the world was discovered. This parietal fresco dating from 17,000 years reveals a kind of canoe with raised prow, which would tend to prove that it is a boat destined to sail on the seas. It has strong similarities with the parietal paintings of Kimberley (Australia). The aborigines used this type of boat to reach the Melanesian islands.
However, the caution is needed, this new theory that would involve the crossing of the Atlantic (even the Pacific) by boat is far from confirmed. A colonization of South America by Africans before the arrival of Asians through the Straits would call into question many convictions and principles. Certain descriptions of the natives by Christopher Columbus and the phonetic similarities between the Amerindian and African languages could, however, support this hypothesis.
Other discoveries made in Canada, in the caves of Poisson Bleu near Alaska, however, confirmed the human presence in the north of the continent 25,000 years ago, 10,000 years before the previous estimate. These first hominids arrived by the Bering Strait would then have spread across the continent along the coasts.
The settlement of the Amazonian forest
Still, a first civilization probably emerged around 1.500 BC. About twenty villages of varying size were grouped around a larger city surrounded by palisades, in the heart of the Amazonian forest. It must not be forgotten that this immense forest, which seems to us today to be inextricable, is very young (approximately 2,000 years ago) and that a large part of the present Amazonian basin was previously covered with grasslands. The climate change at the beginning of our era led to the appearance of the tropical forest as we know it today. It is therefore not surprising that a sedentary civilization developed in this savannah region.
Excavations at the site of Kuhikugu (site X11) tell us that a well-structured society of +/- 50,000 people lived in the current Xingu indigenous park. It was probably a farming people who had cleared large portions of land and made it fertile (terra preta) to grow cassava. The various villages were accessible by roads, bridges and navigable canals. A system of ponds fueled by dams suggests that they also practice the fish farming.
It is almost certain that the forest still harbors many unexplored treasures capable of enlightening us on the daily life of the pre-Columbian civilizations which disappeared almost totally at the arrival of the Europeans.
On the eve of the arrival of the first Europeans on Brazilian soil, the country was therefore occupied by many sedentary or semi-nomadic ethnic groups subsisting from the agriculture, the hunting, the fishing and the picking.
When Vasco de Gama joined the Indies by doubling the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 and thus avoiding the unsafe Mediterranean, he opened the way to explorations commissioned by Manuel I of Portugal, who wants to multiply the commercial counters. Two years after the success of Vasco de Gama, who opened the Route of the Indies, the Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvares Cabral is appointed to head a fleet of 13 ships and is in charge of continuing the expeditions to the Indies. He hopes to make his way to this country as far as possible from Africa to the height of the equator. After a month of sailing, he sees an unknown coast and lands in a small natural harbor in northeastern Brazil, which he calls Porto Seguro in the current state of Bahia. The first contacts with the natives whom Cabral calls Indians like Columbus landing in the Bahamas eight years ago are peaceful. In fact, it is the Tupiniquim Amerindian ethnic group who lived on the Brazilian coast probably from the 5th century AD.
For more than a century, the Tupis supplied wood to the Portuguese in exchange for iron tools. Decimated by European diseases, the Tupis attempt to resume their primitive life but the settlers demand that they deliver them prisoners to work in the plantations, causing inter-tribal wars that eventually exterminate a people estimated at one million people before the arrival of the Europeans.
However, the first Portuguese settlers who arrived without a wife in Brazil benefited largely from the polygamy practices of the Tupis. Thus a first mixed generation (mameluco) originated in the country. Their descendants called caboclos are still today the majority in the Amazon basin.
But back to the discovery of Cabral in 1500 after a stopover in northern Brazil and the claim of these lands on behalf of Portugal, Cabral returns to the sea and along the continent confirming that he has discovered a true continent and not an island. After sending a ship to Portugal to warn the King of his discovery, he forked to return to the African coasts, finally double the Cape of Good Hope and reach India.
Despite the loss of six of its ships, the Cabral expedition was considered a success and became the first stage of Portugal's colonization of Brazil.
This colonization, and even the expedition to Cabral, had been preceded by a treaty signed by Spain and Portugal in 1494. The treaty of Tordesillas fixed the division of future lands discovered or to be discovered between the two countries, Meridian located at 46 ° 37 'west which leaves to Spain all the lands already explored by Christopher Columbus. But Portugal also has the right to colonize the lands to the south of the Canary Islands, Spanish territory and so it can occupy the eastern part of the South American continent and found its colonial empire in Brazil.
The Portuguese colonial empire
Other European maritime powers such as France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom feel excluded from such a treaty which prevents them from profiting from the wealth of the New World other than by piracy. François 1er will get an amendment to the treaty which will concern only the lands already discovered. France and the United Kingdom took the opportunity to embark on expeditions in North America while the Spaniards and Portuguese continued the exploration of South America.
The Portuguese extended their Brazilian colonies and founded the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1567. Unlike the other colonies, the country remained unified and was run by a central administration based in Salvador and directly dependent on the King, modeled on the hereditary capacities of Madeira and Cape Verde. These capacities were granted to trusted members of the Portuguese nobility who were responsible for exploiting the natural resources, distributing and making the land prosperous by planting sugar cane, coffee and cocoa on behalf of the crown.
The Portuguese court in Rio de Janeiro
The situation remained in the status quo until 1808 when the army of Napoleon invaded Portugal causing the flight of King John VI to Rio de Janeiro who got the status of capital of empire. This situation profoundly changed the Brazilian society. The construction of universities and manufactures is allowed and the trade with other countries is developing.
After the end of the Napoleonic wars, the King decided to maintain his court in Brazil and Portugal became a province of the Luso-Brazilian kingdom, which provoked an uprising that began in Porto.
The Brazilians took the opportunity to rebel in turn against the sovereign who authorizes representation in the Constituent Cortes (Portuguese parliament) of 1821.
Peter 1st of Brazil
The king returns to Europe after naming his son Peter IV regent. Listening to the people, the regent granted him the fundamental freedoms, the reduced taxes, the abolished torture and freed the revolutionaries. These decisions, however, will not stop the revolutionary machinery, the Portuguese army fomenting a putsch.
The regent takes the rebels off guard by meeting them and discussing their requirements. The Portuguese parliament then demands the return of Peter to the country but this refuses backed by the Brazilian people who do not want to become again a simple colony. The Portuguese army will once again revolt but it must face the Brazilians and the people who support the regent. When the Portuguese government decided to withdraw his powers, Peter definitively turned his back on his native country. On September 7th, 1822, he declared Brazil's independence at Ipiranga by shouting "Independence or Death" (the cry of Ipiranga). Thus, September 7th became the day of the national holiday in Brazil.
Peter is crowned emperor of Brazil under the name of Peter I which causes tensions between Brazil and Portugal whose army is still installed in certain regions. The country supported by the United Kingdom will not be fully reunited until 1824 and its independence recognized in 1825. In return, Brazil gives trade facilities to Great Britain and agrees to end the slave trade which guaranteed it the cheap labor.
Peter 1er of Brazil has avant-garde ideas and wants to eliminate any attempt of fraud in his government. His policy, however, will not please everyone and especially the large landowners who fear the abolition of slavery. Moreover, the opposition wants the executive power to be transferred from the emperor's sole authority to that of a ministerial cabinet from parliament. Finally, the emperor agreed to appoint the opposition people to his cabinet. On the contrary, this decision was not enough to solve the political crisis of the country and the emperor resolved to abdicate on April 7th 1831 and to return to Europe where he died three years later, a victim of tuberculosis.
Peter II the Magnanimous
His son Peter II the Magnanimous is going to be emperor of Brazil for more than 58 years and to pursue a policy based on the freedom of expression and the respect of the rights. During his reign, the country became a constitutional monarchy and played an important role on the international stage. It has to face several crises in particular to admit the abolition of slavery and to confront the Confederation of Argentina who wants to take control of the Rio de la Plata. He cleverly unravels these conflicts, enabling Brazil to become a great political and economic power.
But peace cannot resist when the United Kingdom takes advantage of an incident (the arrest of drunken British sailors in Rio de Janeiro) breaks diplomatic relations between the two countries in 1862 and especially when the War of the Triple Alliance Opposing Paraguay to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay breaks out in 1865. This war which lasted 5 years was often described as war of extermination and Paraguay pays a heavy human and territorial tribute to the allies.
In the end, Brazil managed to profit economically from this war and to savor a diplomatic victory over the United Kingdom. The emperor has never been more popular, while the people benefit from the social reforms and the modernization of the country, notably thanks to the construction of the railway. The only shadow in the picture is that the abolition of slavery, which is not yet effective, still encounters as many opponents from all social classes. Peter II nevertheless managed to pass a law "free belly" allowing the children born of slaves to become free.
In the 1880s, he began a new struggle to grant rights to women but the emperor was tired of a power that weighs more and more. The premature death of his two sons will also contribute to make him pessimistic all the more so that he feels no longer supported by the government which only recognizes a secondary role. This situation undermines his health and it is very weak that he leaves to seek treatment in Europe. He returned to Brazil in August 1888 after the long awaited announcement of the abolition of slavery in his country. He is welcomed as a hero by his people but the wealthy landowners frustrated by the loss of their labor support a republican movement that also puts pressure on the army.
The birth of the Republic
A putsch was made on November 15th, 1889 marking the end of the empire and the beginning of the Republic despite the little enthusiasm of the people who remain attached to Peter II.
The Brazilian Republic of 1889, dubbed "Republic Café Comite", upsets the country which is in the hands of the landowners. The massive influx of European immigrants is changing the situation and several parts of the country are becoming predominantly white. The racism takes root, the political power belongs to whites, and the social status is linked to the nuances of skin color even within the family. The phenomenon of crossbreeding has never been more important, the Blacks wishing to "launder".
A military dictatorship
The First World War and the fall in the prices of export products plunge the country into a serious economic crisis accompanied by strikes. The government that instituted martial law was dismissed by a putsch in 1930.
It is Getulio Vargas supported by the military junta who becomes president twice (1930 to 1945 and 1951 to 1954) after contesting the victory of its competitor Julio Prestes and a short revolution. Vargas is taking a series of measures to modernize the country and improve the lives of its citizens, including the electoral reform, the reduction of public spending and the creation of national postal aviation. However, it must face a revolution due to a regime supported by the military. In 1937, on the eve of the new presidential elections, the government, on the pretext of a false plot by the Communists, declared a state of emergency and established the Estado Novo giving full power to Vargas. It was not until the end of the Second World War that the political parties were again authorized, which marked the end of the new state and the dismissal of Vargas. However, he will return to power five years later, but his decisions are often disputed and accusations of corruptions are launched.
In 1954, Vargas prefers to commit suicide rather than resign.
After a transitional period, a military dictatorship supported by the United States was established in 1964 following a new putsch taking as a pretext the communist threat.
The individual freedoms are abolished, the censorship is put in place, and the law enforcement authorities are allowed to arrest without having to face justice. The country's economy is collapsing.
The return to a democracy
In 1985, a democratic movement managed to take over the reins of power and establish a new constitution.
The country faces many economic problems, but mostly corruption in the government and a financial scandal affecting the relatives of President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (also known as Lula) and co-founder of the Party of workers. Although sometimes controversial and accused of using public funds for private purposes, Lula tackles the problem of favelas and improves the living conditions of the most disadvantaged. At the end of his second and last term, he gave way to his collaborator Dilma Rousseff in 2011. New financial and ecological scandals as well as a serious economic recession tarnish his mandate. In 2016, a procedure for dismissal is initiated by the parliament against him.
Michel Temer was elected to the presidency of Brazil on August 31st 2016 following the effective dismissal of Dilma Rousseff. It quickly makes unpopular decisions such as the increasing working hours, the delaying the retirement age and the excluding more than one million people from the social assistance program (bolsa familia).
Since May 18th, 2017, he has been the subject of an investigation for corruption and obstruction of justice.
Brazil is a federal republic whose president and vice-president are elected by an absolute majority of votes for a period of 4 years. The mandates are renewable only once.
The 26 federal states have their own constitution and laws, but are limited by the federal Constitution.
The executive power is assured by the president of the republic who is both head of state and government. He is the chairman who is responsible for setting up the ministerial cabinet.
The legislative power is entrusted to the parliament composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies elected by the people.
The judiciary is entrusted to the Supreme Federal Court and the Superior Court of Justice. The regions have their own courts.
A fragile economic power
Despite an unstable political situation and the economic crisis that has prevailed since 1998, Brazil is still a major economic power and ranks 7th worldwide thanks to the IMF loan. However, GDP growth remains very low and the economy is therefore fragile. There are also significant differences in living standards, with a large proportion of the population living in extreme poverty.
Brazil has been an agricultural-oriented country since the colonial period. The sugar and then the coffee, the corn and the rice have contributed to its economic development.
The agriculture, which still accounts for 6% of its GDP, has recently turned to new markets such as ethanol production from sugarcane.
The industries (pharmaceuticals, aeronautics, paper and metallurgy) as well as the oil production in the Santos basin and iron ore mining also contribute to the country's economic resources. The discovery of new important oil reserves could enable Brazil not only to confirm its autonomy in terms of energy, notably thanks to the Itaipu hydroelectric plant on the Rio Paraná (second largest installed power in the world) but also to benefit from the export of the surplus.
The Itaipu dam ranked among the seven wonders of the modern world is more than 7 kilometers long and culminates at 225 meters high. Its construction, however, provoked a veritable human and ecological disaster. More than 1,500 square kilometers of forests and fertile land have been flooded and an estimated 40,000 people, mainly farmers, have been displaced resulting in a wave of migration to Paraguay.
Finally, the tourism is well developed thanks to Embratur, a tourism institute created in 2003 to promote and diversify the destinations proposed by Brazil.
A mixed society
Brazil's total population exceeds 204 million. Despite this high figure, Brazil ranks fifth among the most populous countries, the population density is low because of its size. However, most of the population is clustered along the coast, in the south-east and north-east of the country and especially in the large cities such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The rest of the country is sparsely populated or even uninhabited for some regions.
With a very low fertility rate (1.7 children per woman), the natural growth is less than 0.8%.
The Brazilian population is remarkable for its ethnic diversity, the result of colonization, the slave trade of Africa and the migration to the "New World".
These different waves of settlement are at the origin of the high rate of the crossbreeding. It is estimated that more than 40% of Brazilians are mixed and have more or less distant African origins.
The whites (mainly Portuguese, Italians and Spaniards) and Blacks are represented respectively by 48% and 8% of the population, while less than 0.5% of Brazilians are of Amerindian origin even though it is estimated that one third of Brazilians are of the descendants of the indigenous populations. The Amerindians are mostly grouped on reserves. Finally, Asians from China, Japan and South Korea account for just over 1% of the population.
While Brazil is remarkable for its cultural diversity, it is also unfortunately due to the strong social inequalities and the racial segregation in the country. The extreme poverty of a part of the population and the existence of the favelas, the huge illegal slums on illegally dangerous grounds and without any convenience, lead to a high crime rate, mainly in urban areas. A program to help families with school attendance was launched by President Lula in 2003, which slightly improved the situation. A third of the population benefits from this plan called "bolsa familia".
Portuguese is still the official language of Brazil and is spoken by more than 95% of the population. It differs very little from the Portuguese spoken in Portugal in spite of the accents and the expressions inherited from the mixing of cultures and the interbreeding. Spanish is the second language taught in most Brazilian schools.
Alongside these two main languages, there are approximately 200 other languages spoken in the country. Some Amerindian languages are even considered to be co-official Portuguese. The foreign languages, including German and Italian, are also considered official in some regions.
The main religion of Brazil is Christianity with 61% of Catholics and 26% of Protestants, consequence of the colonization by the Portuguese. There are, however, many rites and beliefs imported directly from Africa by slaves who have come to work in the plantations.
There are also many Jehovah's and Mormons' Witnesses and followers of the spiritualist doctrine based on the belief of reincarnation, the existence of spirits and the communication with the hereafter. With over 6 million followers from all walks of life, the Spiritualism has risen to the status of a full-fledged religion in Brazil. It also plays an important social role since it has allowed the construction of orphanages, hospitals, schools, retirement homes..... The mediums are legally recognized in Brazil and the spiritualist psychiatric hospitals treat people with mental disorders by taking into account the influence of the spirits and past lives of the patients.
Brazil is known for its festivals and especially for its carnival, a real institution for all Brazilians. The main Brazilian carnivals take place in Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Recife.
The music and the dance are of paramount importance. Samba, bossa nova or capoeira are part of the Brazilian culture and are the witnesses of its history.
The beliefs and the legends transmitted orally from generation to generation are also very present in everyday life in Brazil.
The Brazilian cuisine is the image of the country ... varied and mixed. It combines African, European and Amerindian influences and offers dishes based on beef, poultry, mutton and pork or, more rarely, fish and crustaceans accompanied by rice, beans, corn, onions. The most popular dish of Brazil is feijoada, the meat simmered with the beans and the onions. And for a little sweet note, Pé de Moleque made with peanuts and the brigadeiro based on sweetened condensed milk are always on the menu.
Brazilians are major consumers of coffee, mate, fruit juice or sugar cane, coconut milk and guarana soda.
There are also many spirits and cocktails, rums, caïpirinhas, batidas as well as the frozen beer and the sparkling wines (espumantes).
Due to the high crime rate, the tourists must be particularly careful in urban areas and in urban poor neighborhoods. Many flights, sometimes with violence and armed robbery but also murders are part of the daily life of the Brazilians. It is therefore recommended not to wear external signs of wealth (jewelry, smartphones, cameras ...), to carry only small sums of money, not to venture on the deserted streets or in the Favelas, to leave the identity papers in the hotel safe and to keep only their photocopies, to withdraw money only from the mall distributors or from the bank and accept drink or food from unknown persons.
The special care must be further enhanced during the carnival when distracted tourists become easy prey for pickpockets.
It is recommended to swim only in the areas monitored because of the risk of shark attacks and to limit oneself to visit the beaches and the protected tourist sites. The areas closed to the borders in the northwest and west of the country are strongly not recommended.
There is also a significant health risk due to diseases transmitted by mosquitoes (yellow fever, malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Zika virus). It is therefore recommended to wear covering clothes and to use repellents day and night. Do not walk barefoot, bathe in rivers or lakes, or caress animals.
The country is not recommended for women during pregnancy.
Despite all these precautions, Brazil remains one of the most beautiful destinations in the world and there are plenty of natural and historical sites.
Among the most beautiful places of the country are the Iguaçu waterfalls, the Pantanal animal reserves, the sandy beaches bordering the ocean, the São Luis do Maranhão the colonial, São Luis do Maranhão the contemporary And Brasília, a city of unlikely architecture born from nothing in the 1950s.