Presentation of the destination
Medellin is the second largest city in Colombia in the Antioquia region. It is located in the Aburra valley to the north of the Andes mountain range. Its population is about 2.7 million and its metropolis has 3.5 million. Medellin was founded in 1616 by the conquistador Francisco Herrera Campuzano who first called it Poblado de San Lorenzo then Medellin after the name of the Spanish city of the Extremadura region. Its coat of arms has a blue background on which is represented a circular tower surmounted by two small towers and the Virgin carrying her son, which is itself surmounted by a sun piercing the clouds. Medellin has developed rapidly. It was the first Latin American city to have owned a cultural radio and a botanical garden. Its spring climate all the year gave it the nickname of "The Eterna Primavera Ciudad" (the city of the eternal spring).
Points of interests / things to see
In August 1541, Jeronimo Luis Tejelo discovered the Medellin Valley. The Spaniards gave it the name of Vallé de Saint Barthelemy, before returning to the Indian name Aburra which means painters. In 1574, Gaspar de Rodas obtained from Antioquia council 3 km² of land to set up a ranch. In 1616, Fransciso de Herrera and Campuzano founded a colony with 80 Amerindians and named it Poblado de San Lorenzo. In 1646 a colonial law ordered the separation of the Amerindians and the inhabitants of European origin. After 1574, the population of the city began to grow. Gold mines were developing north of Antioquia. The Aburra Valley was then in a strategic position due to its geographical location between the gold mines and the provincial capital Santa Fe of Antioquia. The latter gradually grew poorer and the Medellin Valley sought an independent government, which he obtained in 1674 with a royal decree. The inhabitants of the area that was then scattered gathered around the church to create the future city.
The first buildings of Medellin were simple, with thatched roofs. In 1675 the first colonial census counted 3000 inhabitants and 280 families. In 1808, the population reached 15,000 inhabitants and 360 families. In 1803 the Royal College of Franciscans was founded on the central square with three departments: grammar, philosophy and theology. After changing the building, it became the University of Antioquia in 1901. During the first part of the 20th century, the population was multiplied by six to reach more than 350 000 inhabitants in 1951. The war of 2000 days stopped its industrial development. But the civil war did not affect the city directly. A Chamber of Commerce was created that built a regional transport project to connect Medellin with other regions of Colombia and other countries of the continent. It is the production of gold and the export of coffee which favor the growth of the city. With the murder of presidential candidate Jorge Eliecer Gaitan in 1948, Colombia experienced an era of economic instability. During the second half of the 20th century, Medellin stretched again, the river was canalized and an industrial zone was created in the district of Guayabal.
Medellin was previously known as the most violent city in the world because of the drug cartel war in the late 1980s. That's when the famous Pablo Escobar founded the Medellin Cartel and created terror in the city with its clashes with others like the Cartel del Valle. When Escobar died, crime began to fall. During the 1990s, the crime rate remained high. In October 2002, President Alvaro Uribe ordered the army to launch the Orion operation, which aimed to dismantle FARC and AUC urban militias. Between 2003 and 2006, they managed with the AUC, and 3000 members surrendered. In spite of everything, after the demilitarization of the major paramilitary groups, many members of these organizations have reorganized themselves into other known criminal gangs like the Aguilas Negras. They imposed curfews for the minor population and tried to "cleanse" the city of prostitutes, drug addicts and alcoholics. Leader Don Berma launched a wave of crimes that caused a large increase in murders and murders in Medellin between 2007 and 2009. Since 2010, crime has decelerated but remains important in poor communities.
The current city extends over 382 km ². It includes 16 districts, 5 municipalities and 271 neighborhoods. Its average altitude is 1500 meters and Medellin is crossed by the river of the same name. To the north of the city lies the municipalities of Bello, Copacaban, Girardota and Barbosa and to the south the municipalities of Itagui, Sabaneta, La Estrella and Caldas. Medellin's climate is classified as tropical. Because it is at altitude, its temperatures are warmer than other cities close to the equator. The average annual temperature is 22 ° C. The climate here is pleasant and springtime all year round.
The culture is alive in Medellin with its theater Pablo Tobon Uribe, its Museum of Modern Art, its Metropolitano Theater and its museum of Antioquia which possesses many works of the artist Fernando Botero. The hills surrounding the city - El Volador, Asomadera, Nutibara, Pan de Azucar, El Salvador, El Picacho and Santo Domingo - offer wonderful views and offer various leisure, sports and cultural activities. . Prehispanic routes, religious icons, Antioquian traditions, typical birds and plants, as well as remains of the first Medellin settlers are found here.
Every year, the International Tango Festival takes place, in tribute to Carlos Gardel, who died in a plane crash in the city of Medellin in 1935. The inhabitants dance the tango in the streets in improvised milongas and dance. cost of music. The Book Fair is one of the most important cultural events in Medellin, sponsored by the City Council, where authors of all genres, national and Foreigners.â € From January to February is held the Macarena Bullfighting Festival during which Medellin draws on its Spanish origins. Mid-June takes place the International Festival of Poetry, a congregation of poets from around the world who give readings of their poems in parks and auditoriums in and around Medellin. From July to early August your place the largest Medellin Festival, the Festival of Flowers, whose main event, besides a parade of classic automobiles and an exhibition of orchids, is the parade of flowers. Originally (in 1957) in May, it was moved in July to celebrate the independence of Colombia. In October takes place the feria internacional del caballo, where we can admire many breeds of horses from many countries of the world.
One of the most visited sites of Medellin is the Arvi Park of 20 000 hectares between the municipalities of Bello, Copacabana and Envigado. It contains lakes and forests where visitors can practice sports such as hiking, kayaking, mountain biking, swimming, horseback riding and also camping, picnicking, fishing and watching flowers wild and its butterflies. Its altitude situation offers a wonderful panorama of the natural landscapes and the city. It can be reached by a phone. Finally, there is a food market.
The main church of Medellin is the Metropolitan cathedral of Medellin or Catedral Basilica of Nuestra Senora of the Inmaculada Concepcion. It was built in 41 years following the plans drawn by the French architect Charles Emile CarrÃ © inspired by different styles, but mainly by the Romanesque style. It measures 45 meters high and extends over 5000 m². It is made of bricks and it is the largest cathedral in the world composed only of this material. Other religious monuments are the Basilica of Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria and the churches San Ignacio, San JosÃ © and San Antonio.
Among the museums of Medellin, there is the museum of Antioquia (the largest in the city). It was opened in 1881 in the old town hall and displays many works of art in 17 halls dedicated to all the arts. It houses the pre-Columbian hall, the colonial hall, the nineteenth-century painting room, the photography rooms, the contemporary art room and the room hosting the donations of the artist Fernando Botero . The Museum of Modern Art (MAMM: Museo de Arte Moderno Medellín), opened in 1978, is dedicated to the research, conservation and dissemination of modern and contemporary arts. It has three exhibition halls, a cinema room, a restaurant and an experimental room. His collection includes 233 works by the painter Debora Arango, native of Antioquia. The museum of the University of Antioquia was created in 1942 and has an anthropology section in which 18,000 pieces of pottery, stone, shell, metal and pottery are displayed. pre-Columbian textile. His collection also includes 1200 contemporary works. The Gothic El Castillo Museum built in 1930 and open to the public in 1971 has French gardens, a concert hall and exhibits porcelain, glass and sculpture works. .
Vacation rentals in Medellín (Antioquia)
How to get there ?
Medellin is served by two airports: the JosÃ © Maria Cordova International in Rionegro, for domestic and international flights, with daily flights from the United States, Spain, Latin America and many important cities; and Olaya Herrera Airport for regional flights. Medellin has two transport terminals: the Transporte Intermunicipal del Norte Terminal (from the north) and the Transporte Intermunicipal del Sur Terminal (from the south). Public transport in the city is by bus, taxi and urban train (the Medellín Metro, the only underground network in Colombia). The latter connects all the destinations of the metropolis. Line A connects Niquia and Itagui from north to south and line B connects San Antonio and San Javier from the center to the west. The telephone has two lines, K and J, which serve the difficult areas of access. Line K connects Acevedo to Santo Domingo Savio via line A and line J connects San Javier and La Aurora. By car, Medellin is 15 minutes south of Aranjuez, 1 hour north-west of Rionegro, 1 hour 15 minutes southeast of Santa Fe de Antioquia and 440 kilometers from the sea. Bogota capital.
Hotels in Medellín (Antioquia)