Denmark is a country of Europe
with a surface area of 43,100 km² (density of 128.3 inhab./km²). The population of Denmark is 5,529,888 inhabitants in the last census.The capital of Denmark is the city of Copenhagen which has 1,167,569 inhabitants. The Queen of the constitutional monarchy is Margrethe II.
"God's help, the love of the people, the greatness of Denmark" Denmark or Kingdom of Denmark is a Scandinavian country located in Northern Europe including in its territories the Faroe Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and Greenland in the Arctic Ocean. Denmark is a large archipelago and a peninsula that shares its border with Germany. It is bordered by the North Sea to the west and by the Baltic Sea to the east. AT He has been a member of the European Union since 1973 but is not part of the euro area.
Denmark at a glance
Constitutional monarchy Capital: Copenhagen Administrative divisions: 5 regions and 98 structures Population: more than 5.7 million inhabitants Main language: Danish Main Religion: Danish Enlightenment Church of Denmark Current Queen: Margrethe II Current Prime Minister: Lars L¸kke Rasmussen Currency: Danish Krone (1 Danish kroner = 100 ere) Conversion into euro: 100 Danish kroner = 13.40 euros Tourism: no restriction
A huge archipelago
Denmark is divided into three main areas:
Jutland, which forms the continental peninsula of Denmark in the north of Germany, is surrounded by the North Sea to the west and a series of straits and canals separating the country Sweden, Norway and the Baltic and North Seas, including the Great Belt, the Little Belt, the Skagerrak and the Catcat. The peninsula and archipelago morphology is the result of large tsunamis caused by the "Storegga Landslides", which occurred at the end of the last glaciation . The origin of these continental shelf collapses remains mysterious and may be a consequence of the rapid rise of the waters of the Norwegian Sea or the result of powerful seismic activity. They are the cause of the detachment of Great Britain from the continent following the disappearance of the Doggerland, a low region that connected England and Denmark.
The island of Zealand, Denmark's largest island, is located between Jutland from which it is separated by the Cattégat as well as by the Great Belt and Sweden. is separated by the strait of Ã~resund which flows into the Baltic Sea. The Danish capital Copenhagen is located in the east of the island and is connected to the Swedish city of Malmö by a 4-kilometer tunnel ending on an artificial island and extended by an 8-kilometer long bridge.
The island is also connected to the Danish islands of Funen and Falster by road and rail bridges. Funen Island, the second largest Danish island is located between Jutland and Zealand, and is bordered by the Great Belt to the east and the Little Belt to the east. 'Where is. Bridges connect it to Jutland and Seelande. The relief of Denmark is generally flat, its three highest peaks located in Jutland, Mellehoy, Yding Skovhoyj and Ejer Bavnehoy, culminate at only 170 meters. of altitude.
The absence of mountains and deforestation due to the expansion of agriculture and wood needs of shipyards deprive Denmark of natural barriers against the winds and the rains. From the beginning of the 19th century, a plan to safeguard the environment was adopted. Pine trees have been planted along the western beaches to stem coastal erosion and the disappearance of endemic flora and fauna including orchids and mosses. beavers that were re-introduced to Jutland in 1999. Most of the country is covered with moors and agricultural parcels separated by hedges.
Water is ubiquitous in Denmark with more than 1,000 lakes and more than 7,300 kilometers of coastline. The country enjoys a temperate maritime climate with mild summers (average temperature of 15Â °) and windy and rainy winters sometimes severe with snowy episodes (average temperature of 0 °).
Greenland, the second largest island in the world, has been attached to Denmark since 1814. It is located northeast of the North American continent, off the coast of North America. Canada from which it is separated by the Baffin Sea. 80% of its territory is covered by the ice cap forming a huge glacier (ice sheets) bordered by mountains of medium mountains along the coast.
The climate is harsh in winter with violent cold winds and mean temperatures of -30 ° in the north (with a record of -66.7 ° recorded in 2007) and 0 ° in the south. The pack ice surrounds almost the entire island. Temperatures are milder in summer and are around 10 ° on average.
Only a few, mosses, grasses and shrubs manage to establish themselves in the regions around the region. ice sheets.
The Faroe Islands are attached to Denmark since 1814. This archipelago made up of 18 islands and several islets is located between Iceland, Norway and Scotland, in the Atlantic Ocean. The terrain is rugged and huge cliffs flow into the ocean. The highest point of the island is the Slaettaratindur, 880 meters high. The islands are covered with meadows and heaths.
The islands have a wet, windy climate all year round with cool summers (10 ° average) and mild winters (4 ° average), a consequence of the passage of the Gulf Stream.
An eventful history
Denmark was already populated before the end of the last glaciation, while the emerged lands were much larger and the level of the North Sea was 100 meters. Below its current level. Storegga landslides have upset the configuration of Denmark, engulfing part of the country. AT During the Upper Palaeolithic period, around 9,000 BCE, the culture of Bromme emerges in Denmark and Sweden. The nomadic tribes then live on hunting, fishing and gathering. It is necessary to wait for the nérolithic to see the first sedimentary habitats and the appearance of agriculture during the 4th millennium BC. Some communities settled in villages and worked bronze during the first millennium. One of them is the magnificent "Trundholm Solar Tank", an extraordinary 60 cm long bronze figurine depicting a solar disk on a chariot drawn by a horse and dating back to 1400 BC.
Around the 4th century BC, the Jastorf culture extends into Jutland and northern Germany. It is influenced both by the Celts and the Hallstatt civilization which is developing in Austria and is believed to be the origin of the expansion of the Germanic peoples in Denmark Indeed, towards the end of the 1st century, the Germanic Cimbri are settled in Jutland and found a large number of villages. The impoverishment of cultivable land, however, pushes them towards the South. The Teutons who occupy northern Germany and the Ambrons whose origins remain unclear (probably from North West Germany or the islands bordering the Netherlands today) join the Cimbri in their migration and move towards Central Europe. AT The "War of the Cimbri" begins around 115 BC when these different peoples face together the Taurisques, a Celtic people established in Noricum (Austria). These claim the assistance of Rome, their ally, but the Cimbres inflict a severe disaster on the Roman regions in Noreia which opens the way to southern Germania and the Gaul. They seize Narbonnaise Gaul and Orange and try to invade the Iberian peninsula and Italy. They know their first big defeats against the Celtiberians and against the Romans and are definitively defeated in 101 BC in Vercelli, in Piedmont. Legend has it that the surviving Cimbres committed suicide after their defeat but it is more likely that they were enslaved by the Romans.
Even though the Roman Empire extended towards northern Europe, it never encompassed Denmark, which did not prevent the inhabitants of Jutland and Fyn from maintaining commercial relations with the neighboring Roman provinces. From the 4th century of our era, the Huns invade Central Europe marking the beginning of the "German invasions". Rome does not succeed in thwarting the plans of these peoples, who are slowly cutting back its territories, precipitating the fall of the Western Roman Empire already weakened by the sharing of power with Byzantium. Europe is divided into different structured kingdoms called "barbarian kingdoms" that will give birth to the first medieval kingdoms. The Jutes occupy the north of the Danish peninsula. At the beginning of the 6th century, a tribe probably native of Sweden, the Daners, settles in Jutland and the neighboring islands, expelling the Jutes. These ancestors of the present Danes give their name to the country. This warrior people makes frequent incursions into the neighboring kingdoms without ever really worrying them.
The kings of sagas
The history of Denmark keeps many pages of shadow and is known only through sagas, narratives describing the life of the Scandinavian kings whose "legendary kings". These texts are probably based on historical facts but these have been "revisited" by the authors of the different sagas. AT In the 8th century, the Danes founded their first cities, Aarhus on the eastern coast of Jutland and Ribe, an important trading port located on the western coast of Jutland and which knows a great prosperity until the 16th century when floods, a fire and several epidemics put an end to this golden age. On the other hand, Copenhagen was probably founded well afterwards, around the 11th century, even though archeological excavations have revealed traces of human occupation in the area. dating back to the Stone Age. AT From the 8th century, Denmark becomes a real kingdom with a central power. Harald Hildetand literally means "Fighting Tooth" on the throne when he is only 15 years old. In spite of his young age, he vassalizes all the clans of Denmark but also of Sweden and a part of England which must from now on pay him a tribute.
At this time, a people of Scandinavian warriors and traders known as the Vikings will gradually spread through Europe by rivers and seas. They establish counters in Sweden and Jutland and exchange wood and furs for wine. When Charlemagne tries to invade Denmark, he comes up against the Vikings, who will not only resist but also retaliate by launching raids against the Carolingian Empire. After the death of Charlemagne, the Vikings worried about the extent of Christianization will take advantage of the internal quarrels that divide the empire to loot it repeatedly, sacking the religious buildings. The Vikings invade England and also settle in lands belonging to the Franks who offer them the duchy of Normandy in exchange for their protection and their fidelity. The Viking expansion reached its apogee in the 10th century and encompassed, besides the Scandinavian countries, a large part of England and Ireland, Normandy, part of Russia and Portugal. Italy, Iceland, Greenland and the western coast of the Black Sea. In addition, they make regular raids on the Iberian peninsula and in North Africa. According to some historians, they would also have been the first Europeans to reach North America, several centuries before Columbus. Excavations have uncovered traces of colonization of the Vikings. This colony called Vinland was located on the island of Newfoundland, Canada. AT Parallel to the end of the 10th century, the country is unified for the first time under the reign of Harald I of Denmark. At this time, the Danes converted to Christianity following the baptism of the king and his relatives. The kingdom then encompasses part of Norway and its influence extends to Germany through the interplay of weddings and alliances. This reign marks the end of the "Viking Age". His son and successor, Sven I attacked England and quickly seized new territories including "Five Villages" (the current Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham and Stamford) that had already been taken by the Viking Ivar Ragnarsson but had been bartered at the beginning of the 10th century. In 1013, Sven became king of England and his son Knut-le-Grad pursued the conquest of all England and all of Norway. The successors of Knut-the-Great see their territories to be reduced, first with the taking of autonomy (provisional) of Norway and, in 1042, with the loss of England. Denmark, however, retains control of the straits surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus enjoys new prosperity through trade and taxes but especially the support of the Church. This situation, however, causes conflicts. AT In the middle of the 12th century, Valdemar 1st became King of Denmark. He is in contact with members of the royal family who wish to overthrow him. It is however under its reign that Norway becomes vassal of Denmark, that Copenhagen becomes capital and that the country is again united. A century later, the Kingdom of Denmark mined by internal conflicts is fragmented. The once hereditary monarchy becomes elective and the country loses all its power.
The Kalmar Union
AT In 1397, Denmark, Sweden and Norway came together to form the "Kalmar Union" while remaining independent kingdoms. This union is ruled by Marguerite 1st of Denmark and then by her heir, Eric of Pomerania. In spite of quarrels and even wars between the three countries, the Union will remain true until 1523. Indeed, the invasion of Sweden by Denmark in 1521 ended in the defeat of the Swedes and by the performance of the old partisans of the Swedish ruler, Sten Sture the Younger. This episode known as the "Stockholm Bloodbath" provokes the uprising of the people against the Danish rulers and Sweden is liberated marking the end of the union.
At the same time, the reformer Martin Luther, excommunicated by the Church, imposed his ideas in Germany with the support of the Prince-Elector of Saxony, Fr. III . His Reformation influenced Denmark, which founded a Lutheran National Church which was to be imposed in 1536 after a civil war, of which Christian III, converted to Lutheran, emerged victorious.
Conflicts with Sweden
Denmark is experiencing an era of peace and prosperity, thanks in particular to the export of agricultural products but also to the payment of the right of way in the narrow strait separating the country from the country. Sweden. The country is endowed with a high-performance navy and launches commercial agreements with France in exchange for the protection of its ports. It is also the era of large constructions. Only the wars between Denmark and Sweden that wants to monopolize the hegemony over the Baltic Sea darken the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. Indeed, around the middle of the 17th century, Denmark has to give several regions to the King of Sweden and its territory then corresponds approximately to the present borders of the country. Faced with this situation of withdrawal, the citizens of Copenhagen are revolting against the nobility unable to defend the interests of the country. Brother III and the Lutheran Church support the bourgeoisie, quickly supported by the people. Dorre, the nobility has no power and the monarchy becomes hereditary, following the "Royal Law" of 1665. The king undertakes salutary reforms for the people, notably opening the civil service to non-nobles. This royal law and the Danish Code promulgated by Christian V will apply until 1848 before being replaced by the Democratic Constitution. AT In spite of its loss of power, Denmark maintains its expansionist dreams and founds various colonies including Greenland, Iceland and various Caribbean islands (St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix). They set up counters in India (in Tranquebar) where the Danish East India Company is set up and in West Africa where it takes part in the smuggling. AT During the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark, Sweden and Russia tried to remain neutral, but the British fleet attacked Copenhagen leaving the city and the country in ruins. Sweden takes the opportunity to attack its rival from Norway, keeping only Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands under the terms of the Treaty of Kiel signed © in 1814. AT In 1849, the country was endowed with a bicameral parliamentary constitution and, in 1864, it lost the duchies of Schleswig, Lauenbourg and Holstein at the end of the "War of the Duchies" led by Austria and Prussia. AT At the beginning of the 20th century, Denmark is refocusing on its country and many reforms are undertaken in the social field, granting notably the right to vote to women. Despite its neutrality during the First World War, Denmark gets the north of the former Schleswig Duchy granted by the Treaty of Versailles. The king hoping for more compensation disappoints the government of his prime minister but is not followed by the people. Since then, Danish sovereigns have never interfered in the country's political affairs. AT In 1940, Germany invaded Denmark, ignoring its declaration of neutrality. The country is occupied until May 1945 but the Nazis have to face active resistance groups that organize the release of the Jews to Sweden. At the end of World War II, Iceland detaches from Denmark AT Denmark renouncing its neutrality becomes a founding member of the UN and NATO and joined the European Community in 1973. However, it is not part of the Euro zone.
Denmark is a constitutional parliamentary monarchy whose sovereign (currently Marghrete II) is head of the state but has only an honorary status. AT The government exercises executive power and is headed by the Prime Minister (currently Lars L¸kke Rasmussen). The elections are held every four years. AT Legislative power is exercised by the parliament, which is once again unicameral (Folketing or Assembly of the People). AT The judiciary is independent of the other two powers.
A good standard of living
Denmark's economy is stable and the standard of living is particularly high with very little social inequality and low unemployment. Strongly affected by the global financial crisis, the country has managed to regain positive growth based mainly on foreign trade. The tertiary sector accounts for nearly 75% of GDP while the mainly chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries account for 23%. Denmark benefits from its energy resources (oil and gas) which provide autonomy. While agriculture accounts for only 1% of GDP and employs only 2.3% of the population, Denmark exports more than 60% of its agricultural production. AT The stability of the country makes it possible to attract foreign investors.
A Danish culture
The total population of Denmark has exceeded 5.5 million but the natural population increase is less than 0.3%. Most of the inhabitants are of Danish origin. There are, however, Inuit and Faroese communities reminiscent of Greenland and the Faroe Archipelago being autonomous territories of the country, as well as a German minority (the "German ethnic group"). Established in Schleswig. AT Almost all of the population speaks Danish. English and German are the main foreign languages taught in Denmark. AT 80% of the Danes are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark founded in 1536. The relations between the Church and the State are managed By the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs, itself dependent on the Ministry of Culture. AT Danish cuisine is mainly based on local products, mainly fish. The recipes are very often healthy and balanced. The Danes enjoy the Smeurebreud, breaded rye bread with fish, meat or cheese, as well as the WienerbrÃ¸d (Viennese pastries) and, of course, the herrings and salmon that are ubiquitous and accommodated. 1001 ways. Beer generally accompanies meals.
Denmark is part of the Schengen Area and no visa is required for stays of less than three months. Denmark is a safe destination for tourists even if it is necessary to remain vigilant because of pickpockets. The health care system is excellent and no vaccination is required. AT AT The tourists enjoy the long walks in the moors, the pleasant climate and the warm welcome of the Danes. The tourist sites are not lacking. Notable places include the medieval port of Ribe, the castle of Kronborg, the ancient capital Roskilde which houses the tombs of Danish kings and the reproduction of Viking ships, the castle of Egeskov, a Renaissance jewel built on stilts, Odense, the birthplace of Andersen, the extraordinary Legoland theme park or Aarhus the Viking and of course the many excursions to the nearby islands.